Refers to a wide range of pathology- from mild acetabular dysplasia with a stable hip to more severe dysplasia with instability, to established dysplasia with or without subluxation or dislocation. Usually detected in the neonate.
It affects 1-3% of newborns.
Early (post-natal) diagnosis and treatment can reduce the risk of progression and the development of complications
When the femoral head is aligned with the centre of the acetabulum, the dysplastic acetabulum often normalises within the first few months of life. If the hip remains dislocated, soft tissue contractures develop rapidly and surgery may be required
Left hip is more commonly affected than the right. Up to 20% are bilateral.
More common in females (4:1)
Exact cause is unknown but genetic factors and environmental influences may contribute.
Having an affected sibling increases risk by 5%
Breech presentation (17-fold; 7-fold if C-section)
Large for gestational age
Screening and Diagnosis
Screening takes place within 24 hours of birth, before discharge from hospital, 6 weeks, between 6-9 months, and at walking age.
Barlow and Ortilani tests are used post-natally and at 6 weeks to screen for DDH.
asymmetry of leg folds
Limited hip abduction at 90° flexion; differences in knee height- ‘short thigh’- Galleazzi test (when lying supine at 90/90 flexion); leg length discrepency
Problems with walking (NB not usually delayed walking, but trendelenburg gait), painless limp, walking on toes
Ultrasound scans are useful in assessing DDH up until the age of 4-5 months whilst the hips are still cartilagenous. After this age, radiography is used to assess DDH.
There may be a small ossific nucleus of the femoral head (the femoral head densifies in the newborn period- this may not occur in DDH)
The joint may have subluxed (disruption of Shenton’s line)
A high acetabular index (the angle of the acetabulum to the horizontal line between two hips)
For children under 4.5-6 months who are Ortolani positive i.e. have a reducible hip, a Pavlik harness is most commonly used
Secures the hips in 100° flexion and marked abduction. It allows the soft tissues of the capsule to strengthen and the tight hip adductors to stretch
Surgery is usually required for children presenting late (>6 months) and in those who have failed harness treatment (e.g. Ortolani negative)
If under 18 months, usually just reduction surgery
If >18 months, additional osteotomy may be required
Extremely common cause for presentation to either general practice or A&E
Can be acute or chronic
Taking a history/making a diagnosis/Assessment
What is the age of the child? What are their vital signs?
The younger the individual, the more susceptible to dehydration
The biggest risk of diarrhoea in children is dehydration (for assessment and management, see figure below).
Make sure to examine for dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes, diminished skin turgor, tachycardia, drowsiness/irritability, deep (acidotic) breathing
Fever might suggest infection. Hypotension may suggest shock and should be treated more urgently (ABCDE)
Ask about blood in the stool- suggest bacterial infection, ischaemic bowel/infarction, allergic phenomenon or IBD (see below)
Ask about how much stool is passing and what is its appearance
Is this acute or chronic?
An acute problem is more commonly infective
A chronic problem (>2-4 weeks) is more difficult to diagnose:
chronic non-specific diarrhoea or Toddler’s diarrhoea (diagnosis of exclusion)
lactose intolerance or milk-protein allergy
overflow / soiling
IBS (also a diagnosis of exclusion but with specific features)
Inflammatory bowel disease
Any risk factors?
Food changes or risk of contaminated food
Does the child go to nursery?
Ill family members
Suggests gastroenteritis (infective)
**Increased risk of dehydration**
Any abdominal pain?
This is often a more serious sign in children, as it is more common in inflammatory bowel disease, although can also be found in IBS and infective colitis caused by E coli
Has there been any weight loss or lack of appetite/failure to thrive?
This is perhaps the most important question as it will give you the most information as to whether the child requires hospital support or whether they can be managed in the community
TREATMENT for acute infective diarrhoea is mostly supportive and fluid replacement (see above). Stool samples should be sent in cases of bloody diarrhoea (and/or severe cases) for virology and bacteriology, to further advise management (e.g. public health notification etc)
Differential for the child with chronic diarrhoea
Chronic Diarrhoea Without Failure to Thrive
Chronic Nonspecific Diarrhoea of Childhood or Infancy
Most common form of persistent diarrhoea in the first 3 years after birth and can last from infancy to up to 5 years.
Affected children typically pass 4-10 loose stools/day. No blood, no mucus, nonocturnal bowel movements
first movement is usually shortly after wakening- large formed/semi-formed
subsequent bowel movements become smaller, softer, more watery
transit time for food can be rapid- often undigested food seen in stool
Normal weight/height and appetite (maybe mild abdo pain after meals)
Thought to be due to increased motility and the effect of solutes (particularly carbohydrates e.g. fruit juice) in the gut (increasing osmotic load)
Management is mainly reassurance, perhaps dietary advice (change fruit juices)
Although usually acute, self-limiting presentation, particular strains of infection (most commonly, salmonella) can cause a more protracted course. E coli can also last over 2 weeks.
NB Antibiotic use is not usually indicated in such patients BUT use should be judged on a case by case basis, depending on clinical severity
Stool culture- in any case- will aid in this diagnosis
Disaccharide Intolerance (Lactose intolerance)
NB Not the same as milk allergy, which accounts for the majority of cases of milk intolerance in children, although management is the same BUT allergy usually also causes failure to thrive.
Can be primary lactase deficiency (autosomal recessive- usually family history; can present and persist at any age); secondary (after episode of moderately severe gastroenteritis); congenital (rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with minimal or lack of lactase- apparent once milk is introduced); developmental (seen in premature babies with an underdeveloped gut)
Can be managed with a lactose free diet
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Can be extremely hard to diagnose in young infants- more often becomes clearer in children of late primary/early secondary school age
abdo pain for at least 3 days per month for the last 3 months PLUS 2 or more of:
improvement with defaecation
onset associated with a change in bowel habit
onset associated with a change in bowel form
No weight loss, anaemia, blood, fever etc and all investigations normal
Management can be difficult- often antispasmodics and/or antidepressants.
Chronic Diarrhoea With Failure to Thrive
Intractable diarrhoea of Infancy
Persistent diarrhoea after an acute episode of presumed infectious diarrhoea (postenteritis diarrhoea)
Different from CNSD because there is weight loss, malabsorption and histological evidence of enteropathy
Can be associated with immunodeficiency, malnutrition and can cause severe problems (does carry mortality)
Can require TPN- often lipid/protein replacement is more important than carbs- which can worsen diarrhoea
Refeeding syndrome should be considered as a risk.
Most commonly due to cows milk and soya proteins
Can be associated with protein malabsorption which may lead to hypoalbuminaemia and diffuse swelling. Profuse vomiting and diarrhoea may lead to severe dehydrations, lethargy, and hypotension (mimicking sepsis)
Management is removal of the causal protein
Approximately 1% prevalence
Reaction to gluten
Classic triad of failure to thrive, diarrhoea and abdominal distention (although not uncommon to present with other symptom combinations)
Associated with high anti-tTGA (IgA) antibodies
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Children/adolescents suffering from diarrhoea, with or without weight loss, should be evaluated for IBD.
In crohn’s disease, stool may contain microscopic blood but may not be grossly bloody. Diarrhoea is more common in colonic disease and may be absent in isolated small bowel disease.
In UC, diarrhoea is a more common feature, and blood may be present. Nocturnal diarrhoea and urgency is usually present in left-sided colonic disease.
Other causes of chronic diarrhoea
Immunodeficiency states e.g. X-linked agammaglobulinaemia, IgA deficiency
As with adult cardiovascular examination, this is based on inspection, palpation and auscultation. However, because of the differences in the common cardiovascular conditions seen in childhood, the exclusion(i.e. presuming the heart is diseased) of these conditions requires a slightly different approach.
Look for any deformity of the thorax (a bulge might suggest cardiomegaly)
Look for any peripheral and central signs of cyanosis (hypercyanosis associated with tetralogy of fallot is a paediatric emergency)
Look for other general signs e.g. pallor, increased work of breathing (take a respiratory rate if this is the case)
Look for visible palpitations of the heart (this suggests the heart is working too hard)
First, take a radial pulse
Feel for the apex beat
In a young child/baby, this is in the 4th intercostal space, mid-clavicular line.
Feel for the femoral pulse
If possible, do this at the same time
If absent, this suggests coarctation of the aorta
Feel in the sternal notch for a thrill of aortic stenosis
Use 3 fingers (outer two on trachea (central) and inner to feel deep in notch for the purr of the murmur)
Also feel for thrills/heaves of murmurs over the sternal edge (might indicate a right ventricular problem e.g. pulmonary stenosis)
Auscultate over the apex beat
In children, heart sounds (including murmurs) are much easier to hear and so don’t usually require special manoeuvres BUT because of the anatomy of the conditions commonly seen in childhood, any extra sounds should be evaluated further.
Pansystolic murmur(i.e. loss of HS I+II but murmur in systole)
Find the loudest point
To do this, auscultate across the chest in an X (i.e. first from left shoulder to right mid-axillary line then vice versa)
If loudest at the sternum/centrally- this suggests an AV-septal defect
If the loudest at the left lower region, this suggests a mitral valve defect (regurgitation)
Ejection Systolic Murmur(i.e. HS I+II present)
Also find the loudest part
If, in combination with sternal notch purr, loudest in the right sternal edge, most likely to be aortic stenosis
might also radiate to the carotids
If, in combination with a parasternal heave, loudest in the left sternal edge, most likely to be pulmonary stenosis
might radiate to the back or infraclavicularly
there may also be splitting of the second heart sound
The Innocent murmur of childhood
A mid-systolic murmur which has a characteristic low-frequency, musical quality (like a ‘seagull’s cry’)- heard best with the bell
Usually loudest at the lower left sternal edge, radiating to the apex/carotids; loudest when the child is supine, is acutely unwellor has been exercising/out of breath (this feature is NOT seen in pathological murmurs)
Pulmonary flow murmur
Caused by turbulent blood flow in the head and neck veins
continuous low-pitched rumbling (can be quite loud)
eliminated by lying flat or by compressing the ipsilateral jugular vein
loudest usually at upper left sternal edge or infraclavicularly
The child will be otherwise normal and healthy- caused by turbulent flow
Continuous murmurs not relieved by lying/jugular compression may suggest patent ductus arteriosus although these usually also present with bounding or collapsing pulses in infants and young children, respectively
Lungs begin to develop in week 3 of gestation and continue to fully develop by week 16. Type I and type II pneumocytes are differentiated by 20-22 weeks, and surfactant produced at around 24 weeks.
Alveolar development continues after birth up to the age of 5 (increasing in number by five times to 300 million).
During foetal life, the lungs are filled with fluid (amniotic like). This fluid is compressed from the lung during vaginal delivery.
The first breath
Factors from the external environment e.g. sound, temperature change, touch etc, stimulate the nervous system to initiate the first breath
Central chemoreceptors stimulated by hypoxia and hypercarbia drive further respiration
Initial breaths require high inspiratory (70-100cmH20) and expiratory (18-115cmH20) pressures to expand the alveoli and to force out amniotic fluid from the airways, respectively
This is to overcome the high surface tension
Expiration is initially active (i.e. using accessory muscles)
The effort required to breathe reduces as fluid leaves the lungs and the alveoli expand.
In the newborn, the chest wall is more compliant and the lung less compliant (relative to an adult chest)
this increases the closing capacity (the volume at which the alveoli collapse) to exceed the functional residual capacity (volume after passive expiration)
i.e. alveoli should collapse during breathing – which is not good
To overcome this, the newborn creates positive end expiratory pressure in the lungs due to:
high-resistance nasal airways
partial closure of the vocal cords and glottis
post-inspiratory stimulation of inspiratory muscles during expiration
Newborns have an increased respiratory rate of around 30-60bpm
this is to compensate for a decreased inspiratory reserve volume (due to a flatter diaphragm and relatively horizontal ribs) by increasing the minute volume (volume inspired in 1 minute)
high resp rate also, in part, compensates for a high metabolic rate
The circulatory shunts present in foetal circulation remain present, temporarily, in the newborn. As a result, the work of breathing in the first week or so of life is increased, but quickly reduces as shunt systems diminish.
All newborns can have periods of apnoea as their central respiratory drive is immature (improves with age)
<5 secs normally
premature babies can have prolonged apnoeic episodes (>15 secs) with or without associated bradycardia.
ANAESTHESIA in the newborn can be very risky- physiological PEEP and intercostal muscle tone is lost, reducing the FRC. Combined with an increased shunt fraction and high metabolic rate, this can cause rapid desaturation.
Oxygenated blood is preferentially delivered to the brain, myocardium and upper body
Facilitated by intra-cardiac (foramen ovale) and extra-cardiac (ductus arteriosus/venosus) shunts
Oxygenated blood from the placenta either returns via the liver (~50%) or via the ductus venosus (50% straight to heart via the IVC)
The latter is directed through the Eustachian valve and the foramen ovale to bypass pulmonary circulation and supply the head/upper torso.
The rest of the (deoxygenated) blood from the liver, SVC, and coronary sinus is preferentially directed to the descending aorta, bypassing the pulmonary system mainly via the ductus arteriosus.
Foetal circulation is therefore 2 systems running in parallel- the left ventricle provides 35% of the cardiac output, and the right providing 65%.
Changes at birth
Umbilical vessels constrict in response to stretching and increased O2 content at delivery. Clamping of these vessels remove the placenta from circulation and therefore increase systemic vascular resistance.
Blood flow through the ductus venosus is reduced, causing passive closure over 3-7 days, reducing blood return to the IVC.
Lung expansion causes a drop in pulmonary vascular resistance and an increase in the return to the left atrium.
Combined, the pressures to the right atrium (previously high) and left atrium (previously low) are swapped
This causes closure of the foramen ovale within the first few breaths
The drop in pulmonary vessel resistance and rise in systemic resistance reverses the direction of blood flowing through the ductus arteriosus
The ductus arteriosus is thought to diminish as a result of the loss of placenta-derived prostaglandins
In babies with hypoxia, acidaemia, structural anomalies etc, the ductus arteriosus may remain patent, which can, in fact, worsen hypoxia (left-right shunting).
The high pulse rate (120-160bpm) seen in newborns is mainly to keep up with the high metabolic demand of thermogenesis, feeding, breathing etc.
As a result, the newborn has a very high cardiac output (200ml/kg/min cf ~80ml/kg/min of adult)
Following the Frank-Starling law, because of both the high heart rate and immature (stiffer) myocardium, cardiac output is influenced more by heart rate than stroke volume.
Blood is produced by the liver in utero but is limited to the bone marrow several weeks after birth.
HbF (α2γ2- higher O2 affinity cf HbA- α2β2) is good in foetal life when O2 needs to be transferred from maternal Hb to foetal Hb at the placenta. However, at birth, foetal Hb becomes detrimental as oxygen delivery to the tissues is impaired. This is made worse by increased pH and lower CO2 following delivery.
HbF accounts for 80% of all Hb in a term baby (can be more in preterm infants)
Oxygen delivery is facilitated by increased 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), which binds to deoxygenated Hb, shifting the oxygenation curve to the right.
HbF is replaced with HbA by around 6 months
However, HbF is lost faster than HbA is produced, leading to a physiological anaemia of infancyat 8-10 weeks
Clotting factors do not cross the placenta. However, factor V, VIII and XIII are at adult concentrations before birth
Vit K-derived clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X, protein C and S) are low at birth due to a lack of vit K stores and immature hepatocyte function.
Milk is a poor source and endogenous synthesis by gut flora does not occur until several weeks old.
Newborns are, therefore, given vit K prophylaxisto protect against haemorrhagic disease.
In utero, the environmental temperature is around body temperature. At birth, the environmental temperature drops dramatically. Neonates (particularly preterm) are at high risk of hypothermia
2.5-3 times higher surface area to body mass ratio
limited store of subcutaneous fat
inability to shiver until 3 months
Heat can be lost by
radiation (39%)- can be reduced by increasing room temperature
NB if room temp exceeds body temp, then heat gain will occur. This can be harmful in preterm babies as sweating for thermoregulation only develops at 36 weeks
convection (34%)- can be reduced by warming air and minimising air flow
evaporation (24%)- can be reduced by increasing humidity and reducing air flow (in premature babies, a plastic bag/covering can be used)
Heat can be generated by
stimulation of brown fat
Enzyme pathways take around 3 months to activate
Including conjugation pathway for bilirubin (activates around 2 weeks)
Because of this- unconjugated bilirubin levels tend to rise within first 48 hours due to HbF breakdown and lack of hepatic function
This can be exacerbated by haemolysis, sepsis, dehydration etc
Neonatal jaundice is common, but bilirubin levels should stabilise within 2 weeks
Whilst all nephrons are usually present at birth, immature blood flow limits the concentrating ability of newborns (about half the capacity of an adult), and there is a low GFR (20-40).
These increase to adult levels by the age of 2
Make the baby more susceptible to both dehydration and fluid overload.
However, this enables the baby to counteract the effect of parathyroid hormone (phosphate loss) which increases after birth to help increase calcium levels needed for growth
At birth in a term child, around 75% of total body weight is water (compared to 50-65% of normal adult)
Preterm babies can have significantly higher total body water composition (around 80-85%)
Around 40% of a newborn baby’s fluid is extracellular (compared to 30% in normal adults)
In preterm infants the distribution is around 65% ECF and 35% ICF
For the first 12-24 hours of life, urine output is limited to 0.5ml/kg/hour due to poor renal perfusion. Once the cardiovascular system has fully adapted, the kidneys begin to excrete excess sodium (and ECF)- natriuresis.
Causes a steady weight loss for the first 5 days of life (1-2% of body weight) and reduces the ECF to ‘normal’ 30%
Fluid replacement should be considered in
premature infants in whom there is concern about fluid balance
babies with respiratory failure/distress
babies with excessive urinary losses (inc. renal failure, caffeine and diuretics)
consider carefully in phototherapy
Insensible fluid losses in the newborn equal around 12ml/kg/day, though this can vary with the environment
25-week old infant may be losing up to 15× this ammount
Losses from the stool are also higher in newborns at aroun 5ml/kg/day
Any fluid replacement in neonates must take into account the natriuresis that occurs within the first few days of life
Sodium should not be given in the first two days of life(to avoid hypernatraemia/fluid overload)
Potassium is also not required in the first 1-2 days of life, but can be prescribed thereafter depending on serum potassium levels
The brachial plexus supplies signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm and hand. Damage to these nerves as a baby is a relatively common complication during birth (particularly difficult vaginal deliveries; rarely in C-sections)
Occurs in around 0.5-2/1000 births
Erb’s Palsyaffects C5/C6 (much more common) whereas Klumpke’s Palsyaffects C8/T1
In severe cases, total brachial plexus palsy will affect C5-T1
A vaginal cephalic delivery that requires additional obstetric manoeuvres to deliver the foetus after the head has delivered and gentle traction has failed.
It results from either the anterior, or less frequently the posterior, impacting on the maternal pubic symphysis, or sacral promontory, respectively.
Occurs in 0.5-0.8% of vaginal deliveris
Poor contractions during labour / prolonged labour (e.g. secondary arrest)
Primigravida (1st child) may be more at risk because of this.
Maternal Obesity (BMI >30kg/m)
Induced labour and oxytocin prescribing during labour
Assisted vaginal delivery e.g. forceps or ventouse
Mothers with pre-existing or gestational diabetes should be offered induced delivery at 38 weeks (with or without macrosomia)
NB Induction should NOT be offered to non-diabetic mothers with macrosomia
Previous shoulder dystocia does not necessarily indicate C-section in the future- decision should be made jointly with woman and the obstetric team
Recognising Shoulder Dystocia
It is important to recognise the features of dystocia early and to get help early
Some features may include
difficulty with delivering the face/chin
the head remaining tightly applied to the vulva or even retracting (turtle-neck sign)
failure of restitution of the head (rotating in line with the shoulders)
failure of the shoulder to descend
‘Normal’ traction (i.e. not more than would be used in a normal vaginal delivery) applied in the axial plane (in line with the spine) may be used to diagnose dystocia
Normally, the baby would progress with traction. In shoulder dystocia, it won’t.
Stop the mother pushing
the patient hyperflexes her hips so they are against her abdomen. Mothers in labour may not have enough energy to do this by themselves and may need the assistance of others in the room – which is usually the case. Posterolateral pressure is applied suprapubically with traction on the fetal head. This is the most effective procedure and should be performed first (success rates are up to 90%)
If this does not work, episiotomy (cut between the vagina and anus) may be required and other manoeuvres attempted
e.g. Rubin’s and Woods’ screw, which involve pressing on the posterior shoulder and turning the anterior shoulder posteriorly, respectively
Caesarean section should also be considered early on as a management if there is no response to McRoberts’ manoeuvre
NB DO NOT APPLY FUNDAL PRESSURE as this may rupture the uterus.
Brachial plexus palsies
Occurs in 2.3-16%. 90% of BPPs resolve without permanent disability.
Postpartum haemorrhage (11%)
Perinatal morbidity/mortality from hypoxia/acidosis