Cervical dilatation in the absence of any abdominal pain
- Cervical dilatation during termination of pregnancy
- Cone biopsy of the cervix (for suspected cervical cancer/neoplasia)
- cervical amputation during Manchester repair for uterine prolapse
- Exposure to DES (di-ethyl-stilboestrol)- a synthetic oestrogen drug that was prescribed up until the mid 70s.
- 25% of cases are idiopathic
- Cervical cerclage
- Shirodkar’s or McDonald’s suture usually performed at 14 weeks gestation. There is a small risk of rupturing membranes and infection. The stitch is then removed at 36 weeks or at labour (whichever is earlier).